For the first time in a U.S. trade deal, the agreement includes a ban on local data retention requirements in cases where a financial regulator has access to the data it needs to fulfill its regulatory and supervisory mandate. The United States, Mexico and Canada have reached agreement on a modernized, high-quality intellectual property (IP) chapter that ensures strong and effective protection and enforcement of IP rights, which are essential to foster innovation, create economic growth, and support American jobs. In an annex to the agreement, Mexico also pledged to enact sweeping legislative changes to combat forced labour and violence against workers, and to allow the independence of trade unions and labour courts. The International Trade Commission has estimated that if the changes are made, they will increase the wages of unionized workers in Mexico and narrow their wage gap with American workers. On December 19, 2019, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the USMCA with bipartisan support by 385 votes (Democrats 193, Republicans 192) to 41 (Democrats 38, Republicans 2, independents 1).   On January 16, 2020, the U.S. Senate passed the trade agreement by 89 votes (Democrats 38, Republicans 51) to 10 (Democrats 8, Republicans 1, Independents 1) and the bill was forwarded to the White House for Donald Trump`s signature.  On January 29, 2020, Trump signed the agreement (Public Law No: 116-113).  It formally amended NAFTA, but not the 1989 Canada-U.S.
Free Trade Agreement, which is only “suspended,” so that if the parties do not renew or renew it in 6 years, the Free Trade Agreement would become law.   In addition to the provisions of the original NAFTA, the USMCA borrows heavily from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). On April 3, 2020, Mexico announced that it was ready to implement the agreement and that Canada would accede to it.  The agreement entered into force on 1 July 2020.     The United States, Mexico and Canada have updated NAFTA to create the new USMCA. The USMCA is mutually beneficial to North American workers, farmers, ranchers and businesses. The new agreement, which was concluded on 1. Starting in July 2020, it will create a more balanced environment for trade, support well-paying jobs for Americans, and grow the North American economy. The novelty of the USMCA is the inclusion of Chapter 33, which deals with macroeconomic policies and exchange rate issues.
This is seen as important as it could set a precedent for future trade agreements.  Chapter 33 sets out requirements for monetary and macroeconomic transparency that, in the event of an infringement, would constitute grounds for recourse under Chapter 20.  The United States, Canada and Mexico currently meet all of these transparency requirements in addition to the essential policy requirements consistent with the articles of the International Monetary Fund.  The system can no longer be used in disputes between the United States and Canada and is limited to disagreements between Mexico and the United States that affect a limited range of industries, including petrochemicals, telecommunications, infrastructure and electricity generation. NAFTA`s original labor and environment provisions were added after the original agreement was signed as side notes to gain Democratic support and ensure the agreement`s passage under the Clinton administration. The United States . Mr.C transfer these chapters to the body of the trade agreement, which means that issues such as the right of organisation are now subject to the normal procedures of the Pact for the settlement of disputes. The provisions of the agreement cover a wide range, including agricultural products, homelessness, industrial products, working conditions, digital trade and others. The most important aspects of the agreement include giving U.S. dairy farmers better access to the Canadian market, policies to have a greater share of automobiles produced between the three countries and not imported from other countries, and maintaining the dispute settlement system, which is similar to the system included in NAFTA.   Under the leadership of President Donald J. Trump, the United States renegotiated the North American Free Trade Agreement and replaced it with an updated and rebalanced agreement that works much better for North America, the United States, Mexico and Canada (USMCA), which entered into force on July 1, 2020.
The USMCA is a mutually beneficial victory for North American workers, farmers, ranchers and businesses. The agreement creates more balanced and reciprocal trade that supports well-paying jobs for Americans and grows the North American economy. NAFTA includes three main dispute settlement mechanisms. Chapter 20 is the resolution mechanism from one country to another. It is often considered the least controversial of the three mechanisms, and it has been maintained in its original NAFTA form in the USMCA. Such cases would include complaints between USMCA member states that a provision of the agreement has been violated.  In Chapter 19 disputes, anti-dumping or countervailing duties are imposed. Without Chapter 19, the legal process for managing these policies would be through the national legal system.
Chapter 19 states that a USMCA committee will hear the case and act as an international trade tribunal to resolve the dispute.  The Trump administration attempted to remove Chapter 19 of the new TEXT of the USMCA, even though it had already endured in the agreement. The agreement gives U.S. farmers additional access to foreign markets, particularly in Canada. It does not dismantle Canada`s “supply management system,” which dictates how much Canadian farmers would have to produce to be profitable. But Canada has agreed to cancel a program that helps sellers of certain dairy products at home and abroad and opens its market to milk, cream, butter, cheese and other U.S. products. In return, the U.S. has expanded market access for Canadian dairy products and sugar. The 3. In April 2020, Canada notified the United States and Mexico that it had completed its internal ratification process for the agreement.  The United States, Mexico and Canada have reached an agreement to modernize the 25-year-old NAFTA into a 21st century agreement of high standards […].